Low Back Pain - Types, Causes, Symptoms, Treatment

According to statistics, low back pain is quite common. It turns out that about 80% of the population has had an unpleasant feeling in the belt area at least once in their lives. As we all know, one of the main symptoms of many diseases is low back pain. Some experts believe that discomfort in this area of the spine is a kind of retribution for humans to walk straight.

lower back pain

Most of the time, although low back pain isn't intense or intermittent, it's cyclical, but people don't tend to take it seriously and see a doctor. As a result, the often unpleasant sensations increase and they acquire a chronic nature. In an appointment with a specialist, it turned out that the cause of the discomfort was a serious illness requiring surgery.

Often, acute low back pain eventually becomes permanent. According to neurologists, 40% of patients relapse in the second year after recovery, and 85% of patients experience relapse in the long run.

Types of low back pain

For some people, lower back problems become so habitual that they stop noticing them. Generally, a person can observe lower back discomfort once and it never happens again.

They can keep returning, causing incredible pain. But even before seeing a doctor, it's possible to determine what disease is causing the pain syndrome by looking at the symptoms of the pain syndrome and its location.

There are five types of low back pain:

  • Local;
  • reflect;
  • Reflect spondylosis (pathological);
  • extreme;
  • caused by muscle spasms.

Localized and referred low back pain

Local localization of pain syndromes occurs as a result of stimulation or compression of sensitive nerve endings. It can cause breakage, rupture or tension in sensitive fibers. Unpleasant sensations of a local nature do not change in intensity when the body position changes, suggesting the presence of a spinal tumor or infection.

The source of reflex pain felt in the lower back may be a problem with the abdominal cavity or small pelvic organs. Many times, but not always, pain is limited to the abdomen, small pelvis, in addition to the lower back. The discomfort did not increase when the spine moved, but there was no particular relief either.

In the case of damage to the upper lumbar spine, referred pain can be felt in the lower back, groin area, or front of the thigh. When the lesions affect the lower lumbar region, the discomfort usually occurs in the buttocks, the back of the thighs, and rarely in the calves or feet.

severe and cramping pain

The typical discomfort of the radicular inferior spine is usually characterized by the severity of the presentation and spread to the legs.

Often, back pain when coughing can cause coughing, sneezing, or other tension in the abdominal musculature. This occurs due to tension in the affected root or nerve at a location or movement in the body.

Thus, sitting back pain occurs due to tension in the sciatic nerves (response roots L5 and S1), which travel along the back of the thigh. The nature of the sensation itself often does not allow the distinction between radicular pain and non-radial pain. The cause of muscle spasm discomfort is often unclear. Soreness can occur with various spinal disorders. With the spasm, the spine flexes, the deep muscles in the back tense, and dull pain occurs.

Discomfort in the lower back usually occurs in lesions of the spine. In some cases, it can cause damage to kidney, pancreas, and psoas tissue. The cause of pain is usually determined by a neurologist. A therapist and orthopedic surgeon are involved if necessary.

Common causes of back pain

Doctors recommend paying attention to unpleasant sensations in the lower back, mainly because it can be one of the symptoms of many serious illnesses. The nature of the manifestations of lumbar spine syndrome depends entirely on what is causing it. Only a specialist can determine the "source" of the pain, and what may be causing the lower back discomfort.

Causes of persistent low back pain:

  • cholelithiasis;
  • pancreatitis;
  • prostatitis;
  • Inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs;
  • Benign and malignant tumors of the pelvic organs;
  • gastric and duodenal ulcers;
  • aortic aneurysm;
  • Kidney stones or urinary tract infection.

Causes of pain related to the spine and back muscles

In medicine, a number of fairly rare spinal disorders are known to cause lumbar spine syndrome. Ankylosing spondylitis stands out among these diseases when the joints of the spine become inflamed. In addition, low back pain can cause a bacterial infection called osteomyelitis.

In 90% of cases, lumbar spine syndrome is caused by various problems with the musculature of the spine and back. In this regard, the most common causes of pain are:

  • Degenerative dystrophic diseases of the spine (osteochondrosis, deforming spondylosis, progressive osteoarthritis, herniated disc);
  • Severely overworked lumbar muscles;
  • Complex spinal fractures - trauma or compression.

Separated in this list of causes is psychosomatic - according to this direction of medicine, back pain is caused by psychological problems. For example, unable to find their true purpose, overburdened (caring for sick relatives, small children, family problems, etc. ). In this case, doing it yourself can help.


Lower back discomfort may be observed in cases of extensive spinal disease and nerve root damage.

However, these disorders can occur for considerable periods of time without manifestation. Only under the influence of certain factors will they feel it. Therefore, it is not only necessary to eliminate unpleasant feelings, but also the main disease.

Factors that cause low back pain:

  • do not understand the rules of weightlifting;
  • Insufficient physical activity;
  • hormone imbalance;
  • using uncomfortable furniture (chairs, armchairs, etc. );
  • wrong posture.

Hypothermia, changes in air pressure, and magnetic storms can also cause lower back pain. In any case, irritation of the sensitive nerve roots of the spinal cord occurs. It can also be observed due to the pathological deposition of calcium salts. Vertebral hernias, herniations (herniated discs) can also cause coccyx and lower back pain.

Low Back Pain: Symptoms

Any disorder has its own symptoms, but with lumbar spine syndrome, the appearance of symptoms depends on what's causing the lower back discomfort. For example, severe discomfort may be the result of renal colic. In this case, a person will not be able to find a body position where he can endure the discomfort.

Pain in the lower back and groin is sometimes a reflection of the passage of pebbles from the renal pelvis into the ureter. When the fifth vertebra is displaced, not only severe weakness is felt in the lumbar region, but also pain in the hips and legs.

It is difficult for a person to move around because the syndrome only intensifies and becomes unbearable. The disease itself is called spondylolisthesis.

Middle-aged women often experience low back pain after going to bed and weakness in the morning. Additionally, the spine is inactive and has discomfort along it. These symptoms are characteristic of fibritis. When the disease begins, pain in the lower back can become very intense during exercise because the fibrous connective tissue has become inflamed and is very sensitive to the body's movement.

Lumbar syndrome deserves special consideration, considering both sides of the body:

  • Soreness in the right area of the lower back is a sign of a problem in the genital area and a sign of a lesion in the right kidney, abdominal wall, bowel or cecum (appendicitis);
  • Discomfort in the lower back on the left side is a sign of problems with the reproductive system, ureter, left kidney, hernia, bowel and abdominal wall.

low back pain treatment

It happens that the pain in the lower back after a cold, and for other reasons, is so intense that it cannot be left untreated. Whatever the cause, bed rest is recommended for the first few days. If the discomfort in the lower spine is caused by a sprain, a heating pad or warm bath will help improve your health. If damage is severe, seek medical attention immediately.

Conservative treatment

Stimulating ointments, as well as mustard or pepper creams, will help with a localized warm-up of the lumbar area in the most painful area.

It will bring relief and wrap in a warm woolen scarf, use a heating pad, a bag of heated sand, leeches. For myositis, hot compresses are very helpful.

Depending on the parallel symptoms observed, back pain can be relieved by electrical procedures: bikinetic current, transcutaneous electrical analgesia, sinusoidal modulated current, neocaine electrophoresis, etc. Reflexology (acupuncture, cautery, electroacupuncture, laser therapy), including neocaine blockers, can also help relieve discomfort.

For sciatica caused by a displaced disc, traction therapy is prescribed - stretching the body in bed or underwater. Similar procedures are performed in a hospital setting. Balneotherapy is also considered effective. These are radon, sulfide, chloride, sodium, turpentine, iodine bromide bath, low temperature mud application, naftalan.

Effective enough for lumbar syndrome is rubbing with anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs. You can relieve pain and rinse the affected area with ethyl chloride.


Very important in eliminating lumbar syndrome and preventing its onset is wearing an external support system - orthoses.

At the doctor's discretion, this can be a corset, a semi-corset, a posture corrector or a recliner (a special corset that eliminates leaning), a bandage. Belts are sometimes recommended: corsets, anti-radiculitis, elastics, etc.

There is only one universal remedy that can help relieve back pain after prolonged sitting and prevent the development of lumbar spine syndrome -- physical therapy exercises (or yoga -- a group of health-improving exercises). It is also important to monitor the sitting posture and perform light exercise when the back and waist are numb. A massage can help a lot. It will relieve muscle spasms and keep the muscles in proper condition.

In general, back pain can have a variety of causes. It is important not to ignore the symptoms and to go to the clinic on time. Prevention will prolong the effect achieved by treatment. Therefore, you should not carry heavy objects and fully follow your doctor's advice. Then, maybe the pain in the lower back will never come again.